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For more information on how these cookies work please see our cookies policy. The cookies collect information in an anonymous form. The sub-base is the main load-bearing layer of paving construction. A well-deed sub-base should evenly spread the load of traffic, whether pedestrian or vehicular, down to the sub-grade, also known as the formation level.
Best practice usually stipulates a geotextile non-woven membrane e. Failed paving construction can very often be put down to the sub-base being the wrong material, an insufficient depth or being poorly installed.
With the emergence of many new paving products on the market, and legal compliance for Sustainable Drainage Systems, recently a whole new world of best practices and materials have opened up for sub-bases and bedding, so it seems timely to revisit the basics of this important element of garden construction. Although often strong enough as a material, it was the random sizes that caused voids, which had to be blinded in with gravel afterwards. The irregular sizes often led to weak spots that would eventually cause sinkage or cracking of the paving above. You can buy or hire a crusher for any hard materials being broken out, but these are slow and very noisy.
They are both crushed stone: Type 1 has a maximum permitted top size of 63mm, graded down to dust; and Type 3 is an open-graded 40mm unbound mixture with a reduced amount of fines. Both are porous, but Type 3 is becoming more and more popular if the finished surface is to be free draining or have a permeable ting material. There are also Type 2 and scalping sub-bases, which are usually 40mm down to dust, but with a higher percentage of fines, therefore having less load-bearing capability.
The thickness or depth of sub-base depends on the weight of traffic the paving is likely to incur. For sticky clay, it is advisable to go deeper, but for freer-draining, more stable sub-grades such as chalk or sandy soil, a general rule for a Type 1 sub-base could be as follows:.
A vibrating plate compactor may be suitable for patios and paths, but a much heavier-duty vibrating roller will be required for a driveway. With the growing desire for hard surfaces to be more porous, many deers, architects and contractors are looking at alternatives to solid mass concrete, but is a flexible, granular sub-base as good as a rigid one?
In my opinion, it certainly has its place, particularly when a heavy load is required or where unstable ground may be a problem. Paving an area of more than 6m x 6m will require expansion ts, and to comply with SuDS you will also need to ensure there is a suitable drainage system to manage surface water run off.
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Change cookie preferences. Sub-bases for paving: a basic guide. Note visible falls to central drain. Photo: The Outdoor Room Landscaper David Dodd explains the ins and outs of garden paving foundations The sub-base is the main load-bearing layer of paving construction.
Brick on edge paving detail — flexible construction What depth? For sticky clay, it is advisable to go deeper, but for freer-draining, more stable sub-grades such as chalk or sandy soil, a general rule for a Type 1 sub-base could be as follows: Light Duty pedestrian patio or garden path — mm to mm Medium Duty driveway for cars or vans not exceeding 7. Rigid sub-bases With the growing desire for hard surfaces to be more porous, many deers, architects and contractors are looking at alternatives to solid mass concrete, but is a flexible, granular sub-base as good as a rigid one?
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